Deep Blue is the chess-playing program, built by IBM, that defeated the reigning world chess champion, Garry Kasparov, in 1997. Modern algorithms play much better chess, using much less computing power, but Deep Blue still holds the place in history of having first played superhuman chess relative to the best human player at the time. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Blue_(chess_computer).
- Vingean uncertainty
You can’t predict the exact actions of an agent smarter than you—so is there anything you can say about them?